# 100 years later – 7 steps and a answer

## . INTRODUCTION

These steps were originally publish on mygrandfather.wordpress.com

I decided to migrate these to my own server and review it.

# Step 1 – Presentation

“How was the world and human kind created?” is the title of a most ambitious book written by my grandfather Willy Kinberg about hundred years ago. It was published 1906 in German and later in Swedish in 1908. I have a Swedish and German translation dedicated by Willy to his parents.

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# Step 2 – three questions

Three questions appear in the original book main page written in German:

1. “How did the universe and humanity arise?”
2. Did God create the World from nothing?
3. Did the first humans, Adam and Eve have ancestors?

In the Swedish version there are no questions at all. Just the  title appears in page 1:

“The arise of the Universe and humanity”

I wonder why they omitted the questions in the Swedish book. The questions are not mentioned anymore in both versions as far  as I have read. I have only found the name of Adam and Eve in page 250 as you can see in the image below.

Willy is obviously trying to unite a Christian, Muslim, Hebraic creation view with a Scientific view making Adam and Eve belong to the Pithecanthropus hominids found 1891 in Java (17 years before the publication of the book in Freiburg) (Source: Oxford living dictionaries).

I digged deeper into this issue, looking with a pluralistic religious view at both the Christian and Muslim view of Adam and ended up with  a “Unified Creation Theory” that I link in the menu on the right column.

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# Step 3 – Nebula and nova observations

Content

My grandfather Willy talkes in his book in page 10-14  about our planetary system, sun and planets and the stars that are seen  and how they move. Click here to read the German pages 10-14 )

Nebulae and spectroscopy

In page 14 he begins to explain about the difference between star groups and nebulae and how they are recognized with special cameras, spectroscopic cameras (Spectograph). Google

You may find valuable info in History of Astronomy

(Source : Wiki)

Telescope with a prisma near the ocular.

Willys books Nebulae

Willy  mention among others these nebulae:

he tells in page 15 that he is convinced  that these nebulosa are intermediate phases in the building  of the worlds.

The camera Willys mention looked like this

Here are some modern images of Willys mentioned nebulae

Andromeda nebula now know as a Galaxy.

Dumbell nebula
(Messier 27) 1,200 light-years distance, “it was first described by the French astronomer and comet hunter Charles Messier who found it in 1764” (source: www.constellation-guide.com/dumbbell-nebula-messier-27/ )

Crab nebula in Taurus.
“observed with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode in the morning of November 10, 1999. It is the remnant of a supernova explosion at a distance of about 6,000 light-years, observed almost 1,000 years ago, in the year 1054. It contains a neutron star near its centre that spins 30 times per second around its axis (see below).” ( Source:www.eso.org/public/images/eso9948f/  )

Omega nebula (Messier 17)  in Sagittarius.

The Omega nebula contains Hydrogen, Helium etc  according to  spectral lines seen in Spectographs. Willy mentions existence of Helium and Hydrogen as existing in nebula. Source: http://pages.uoregon.edu/jimbrau/astr122-2015/Notes/Chapter4_5.html#spec  )

• Spiral nebula as in the Canis constellation
They may have seen the spiral glaxies NGC 2207 or  IC 2163 or messier 101.

“Canis Major is home to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, as well as to several notable deep sky objects: the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, the open cluster Messier 41, the emission nebula NGC 2359 (also known as Thor’s Helmet), and the colliding spiral galaxies NGC 2207 and IC 2163.” (source:www.constellation-guide.com

Canis major constellation

Ring nebula in Lyra. ( Source: Ring nebula M57 )

Lyra constellation

Messier objects in Sagittarius

Appearing and dying stars.

Willy mentions several new star observations in page 15. I have found data about all his testimonials. Only his own observation in 2901 seems to have been exagerated maybe to fit into his theory of a world destruction. His book as he self told it is partly fiction and he deliberately left sources out to not annoy the reader with annoying facts.

Schmidt in Aten 1876 in the Cygnus

“The star of 1876 (in the constellation of
Cygnus) had long been known and catalogued as a telescopic
star of the ninth magnitude, with nothing to distinguish it from
any of the common herd. On November 24th it suddenly shone
out as bright as the pole-star. Schmidt, of Athens, who discov-
ered it, had been observing that very region of the sky only four
days before, and no such object was then visible. The intervening
days were cloudy, so that we cannot tell precisely the hour when
it ?rst blazed up, but evidently its increase of brightness must
have been extremely rapid. Immediately after Schmidt’s obser-
vation it began to fade, but it was two weeks before it fell below
the sixth magnitude and became invisible to the naked eye, and
it was more than a year before it resumed its original faintness.
Its whole course was carefully watched with the spectroscope.
At ?rst, and for some months” (Source: babel.hathitrust.org/ )

Ward, Gully Hartwid 1885 in the Andromeda

He discovered a new star in M31 (the “Andromeda Nebula”) on 20 August 1885. This object was designated as supernova “S Andromedae“.  now called SN1885 (Source: www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Ernst%20Hartwig  )

Remnants from SN 1885.
Photo of traces after the Supernova 1885
( Source: news.nationalgeographic.com  )

Dr Andersson in Edinburgh 1891 observation in the Auriga constellation in the Perseus

“Nova T Aurigae 1891” as it is called today was discovered by “the watcher of the sky” Dr Andersson,  widely known far beyond the bounds of his native Scotland. Astronomers, professional and nonprofessional alike, and readers of popular and technical books on the science, knew of him as the discoverer of two famous temporary stars-Nova Aurigae (1892) and Nova Persei (1901)-and of many variable stars as well.” (Source:  http://www.astronomyedinburgh.org   )  It is a supernova in our Milky Way galaxy.

Auriga constellation: Source: http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Auriga_(constellation

Willy Kinberg 22/2 1901

As he describes the last observation in 1901, it sounds also like a supernova observation. probably it was “Nova Persei 1901”.

“We have imaged the ejecta of GK Persei (Nova Persei 1901 A.D.) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), revealing hundreds of cometary-like structures.”   read more in https://arxiv.org/abs/1204.3078 There are many observations done in 1901 (See http://www.rochesterastronomy.org/sn2009 /

“A “new star” appeared in the constellation Perseus in 1901? and was observed by Professor Winslow Upton at ?Brown’s ?Ladd Observatory. Eleven year-old H.P. Lovecraft also saw the cosmic sight, which inspired him to include the nova in his weird tales of horror.

This is an image from 22/2 I took from rochesterastronomy:

(Source: https://blogs.brown.edu/libnews/nova-persei/

Willy tells about other observation in the Sky that sounds like Auroras, polar lights or northern lights. Could have looked like in this photo

In The Mysterius comet I found this text about

May it have been a comet or its tail entering the atmosphere the same day? To be looked closer at.

The destruction of two colliding worlds

Willy discuss this observation as testimonial of the destruction of two worlds who colliding with each other created the light.

Nova Persei 1901 inspired  also H.P. Lovecraft

in his  short cosmic horror story, “Beyond the Wall of Sleep”, were ancient, multi-dimensional entities menace humankind” click to read the book

Lovecraft (1890-1937) was an amateur astronomer Source:  https://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/parallax/serviss/lovecraft

Arise of spiral nebula

Messier 51 looked like this in a photo

My grandfather Willy continues in  his book in page 22-24  to talk about his theories about the creation of Spiral “nebula”. Click here to read the German pages 21-29 ) . His theory is that two giant bodys, maybe planets collided while rotating in opposite directions. See image from his book below. I think it is an interesting and well thought explanation.  At the time of Willy they called these observations as  nebula observations. A big debate started short after 1906 about the origing of these. Today scrietists agre that the spiral nebula actually is a spiral galaxies. Read more about the debate.

For you who are interested in nebula I recommend this youtube video

Willys sources

It is obvious that Willy being an engineer is highly interested in astronomican news and well informed about these. To me reminded that he made his researches at the end of the 1900th century when there was no internet. I wonder how he kept himself informed. Maybe he had a good network of friends devoted students of astronomy active in the Universities in Europe.

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# Step 4 – Earth and life ingredients

WHERE DOES EARTH AND LIFE INGREDIENTS COME FROM?

iIt is time for step 5 about the origins of earth and life ingredients. You will read about atoms and where they were created and are found today.

Willy Kinberg started his discussion about the creation of the world’s out of his last supernova and nebula observation in February 1901. He was on the correct track. I wrote about his theory in another post (click here to read about it.). We know today that Earth and all its ecosystem with its billion years evolution would have not have been occured without a massive star Supernova in this planet system neighborhood. So the stars Willy and the astronomer of his time saw had indeed to do with the “creation of the worlds” and the life on it.

Willy  talks about how the planets and organisms were formed in his book but I will come back to this later. I will in this post only talk about the origin of the atoms and were these are found.

Content

Earth most abundant atoms

The most abundant element in the earth’s crust is oxygen, making up 46.6% of the earth’s mass. Silicon is the second most abundant element (27.7%), followed by aluminum (8.1%), iron (5.0%), calcium (3.6%), sodium (2.8%), potassium (2.6%). and magnesium (2.1%). ”
Read more in  “What Is the Most Abundant Element? – Most Abundant Element in the Universe, Earth, and Body” in www.thoughtco.com

The ingredience of life

Body and plants  needs  a lot of different kind of atoms to build Chlorophyll, DNA, enzyme, proteins, fat, etc. These atoms are created in different parts of the Universe. Scroll down to Nucelosynthesis  to read more about this.

Read more in “What are the Ingredients of Life?”

Enzyme atoms

The supernova enzymes. Selenoenzymes like selenocysteine and selenomethionine  contain Selen created during a Supernova nucleosynthesis.(Source: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/selenium )

Selenocysteine
Selenomethionine

Some enzymes contain  Magnesium (Mg).

Some enzymes need Zink (Zn), Read more in http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/5/1437S.full

DNA-atoms

DNA require  Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Phosphor (P)

Clorophyll atoms

Chlorophyll in plants produce Oxygen molecules (O2) Chlorophyll needs Magnesium (Mg). REad more inwww.quora.com

Some bacteria can live with Arsenic (As) instead of phosphorus (P) (Source: www.space.com   )

Nucleosynthesis

All the atoms are ordered in a Periodic system (Click on the image to get a full size view ).

If you want to get info about all the atoms go www.rsc.org and click on the atom you want to read about,
check eg “ Uses and properties -> Biological role”.

Periodic Table

Where and when are the atoms created?

Atoms have been built from the very start of Big Bang (Big bang nucleosynthesis). other heavier atoms, up to Iron are built in stars (stellar nucleosynthesis) and the heaviest in Supernova (Supernova nucleosynthesis) Look at this periodic table with info about the origins of the atoms.

• As you can understand shortly after (3 min-20 min after ) Big Bang (Big Bang nucleosynthesis) we got
• hydrogen (H)
• helium (He) atoms
• In small stars as our  sun(stellar nucleosynthesis) we get  heavier atoms like
• Nitrogen (N),
• Oxygen (O),
• neon (Ne) .
• iron (Fe).
• In large stars (stellar nucleosynthesis) we get:
• Magnesium (Mg) needed in many enzymes
• Zink (Zn) needed in many enzymes
• Potassium (P) needed in DNA
• Some atoms are created  in Supernovas (Supernova nucleosynthesis), that is  when superstars (8+ times the size of our sun) collapse:
• brom (Br)
• Gold (Au)m,
• Selenium (Se found in selenoenzymes)
• Silver (Ag),
• Plutonium (Pt)

This image shows how atom nuclei collide forming bigger nuclei.

Latest supernova discoveries

Willy saw a “new star” in february 1901. We know today it was a supernova. We know also that there are two  types of supernovae.

Our sun is to small and will end up as a red giant and eventually teminate a a white dwarf. If there is  a companion star nearby ( maybe the Jupiter gas planet surviving the red giant phase and igniting?) a type 1a Supernova will appear.

A star that is a t least 8 time bigger than our sun terminates as a red supergiant and collapses creating a supernova type II.

As it was a recurrent observation, today we know Willy probably saw a type Ia supernova.

Supernova type II 3D simulation

We have news about type II supernova from Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics.

Supernova studies are complicated because of disturbing signals  in the Universe. The only way to come closer is making computer calculations/simulations with powerful computers based on observations and known physical mathematics. These calculations have been made at Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and 2010 came the first results of a 3D modeling simulation.

They seem to have based their calculation out of detailed observations of SN 1987A a type II supernova in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud, our neighbouring galaxy, about 170,000 light years away. SN1987A was seen  about twenty years ago.

Aas you can see in the photos below, huge amounts of carbon (green), oxygen (red), and radioactive nickel (blue) were expelled from the studied collapsing star, a progenitor star 10+ times bigger than our sun. (We know that our star wont end up as a supernova but as a red giant. See more about this in the video below)

“Nickel bullets were observed to propagate at velocities of thousands of kilometres per second, much faster than the surrounding hydrogen and much faster than predicted by simple hydrodynamic calculations in one dimension (1D)” read more in https://phys.org/news/2010-05-death-star-3d.html

“n particular, a detailed model that reproduces all observational features of SN 1987A still remains a challenge.”

A more advanced lecture telling about the difference between type 1a supernova observed by Willy and a type  II supernova is well explained in this video with Yong-Zhong Qian.. To understand how stars are building up big atom nuclei with many neutrons with Helium nuclei protons, you should be familiar with neutrinos.

Some good informative films in youtube

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar and Supernova  nucleosynthesis

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# Step 5 – Comets and meteorites

After having talked about the sun and different planets in our planetary system, Willy continues his book in page 93, talking about comets  and meteors. He call them in German Weltsplittern, remains of destroyed worlds. A proof for this was according to him a comet, that fell 1885 August 10 in the village of Grazac. When a part of it was heated they experienced a bituminous odor that Willy  said has organic origins. That meteor could only come from a planet with vegetation.  I have understood that the Grazac meteorite may have been a carbonaceous chondrite. About these meteorites “its most notable components are amino acids and nucleic acids, both of which are fundamental to life on Earth. Similar organic matter would have been raining down on the early Earth in comets, meteorites, and micrometeorites, but at present it is not known if this influx from space played any role in the evolution of life.” ( Source:   https://www.britannica.com/topic/carbonaceous-chondrite  )

Meteors containing iron have for him either “volcanic” or “cosmic origin”. He tells about different meteors: I have found  observations of some of them, documented on internet. See eg the Madrid meteor i write about below. He tells about meteor velocities in space, about their entrance in the atmosphere and how their velocity is diminished by 1/30. He also explain why remains meteors remains are more easily found in snow and ice covered  regions in the north like in Luleå and Greenland. Talking about were iron in meteors comes from, he also talk about the earth crust thickness, being between 50 and 60 km deep.

What are meteorites and comets

Before we continue it is important to make a clear distinction between the terms “meteorites” and “comets”

Comets

“Comets are small celestial bodies that appear in the night sky as a ball inside a long, thin envelope of visible light. They are composed of water, frozen gasses and dust not incorporated into larger heavenly bodies at the dawn of the universe.” ( Source: osr.org )

http://www.sun.org/encyclopedia/asteroids-meteoroids-meteors-meteorites-comets

contains a nice vocabulary of frequently used terms.

Comet: “A smaller celestial body mainly composed of ice and dust. If a comet approaches the Sun it can generate a tail of gas and/or dust.”
Meteorite: “The part of a meteoroid or asteroid that survives the passage through our atmosphere and reaches the Earth’s surface.”

So a meteorite is simply either a meteoroid (Similar to an asteroid, but significantly smaller. Mostly debris of comets, sometimes debris of asteroids.) or a asteroid that has reached the Earth surface. (source: “www.sun.org” ) Willy clearly and correctly explain the nature of comets (as carrying stones and ice with vapors in their tales) he  does however not explain the term meteorite, probably as they did not know about this at his time. He just discusses the origin of the meteorites as being either cosmic, volcanic or planetary with biospheres carrying organic material. He mentions iron meteorites.

“Made of nearly solid nickel iron the Iron Meteorites are a smaller and rarer group of meteorites then the stone group.” (Source :  www.meteorite.com )

Meteors

“Meteors are what are typically known as “shooting stars.” They appear as a visible streak of light created when a larger body of miscellaneous space debris, properly known as a meteoroid, enters the atmosphere of the Earth. Meteoroids vary in size, but the great majority of meteoroids that pass through the atmosphere each year are no larger than a pebble.” ( Source: osr.org )

iron meteorites Handbook

Source: http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10524/33750

An iron meteor has been found on mars. The largest known iron meteor landed  80000 years ago in Hoba in Africa probably with slow speed as there was no crater around it. Its weight was 66 tons and it was  nine feet long by nine feet wide by three feet thick. It is composed of about 84% iron, 16% nickel, and trace amounts of cobalt and other metals. (Source:   ttp://geology.com/records/largest-meteorite ) These metals were created at supernova. So the origin of Willys iron meteors may all have supernova origins. The age of the meteors are studied analyzing the atomic decays of among other radioactive atoms in the specimens.

Source :  www.meteorite.com )

You can buy iron meteorites at http://www.sun.org/meteoriteshop

Meteor craters

A 545.7 m diameter meteor created the Arizona meteor crater 20 000 years ago.

Source: https://www.meteorite.com/meteor-crater/

Rsources:

The Tanguska event 1908 happened after Willys publication of his book. I think however it is very interesting even though we do not know the origin of this event.

1885 August 10 Grazac
recorded as a pseudometeorite

Willys talked about the event in Grazac 1885. We know today that it was  “An object that has been claimed to be a meteorite, but which is nonmeteoritic in origin.”.

Sveral meteorites like the one in Grazaccontain organic materials. See

“the complex structure of the organic materials present in carbonaceous chondrites, such as the Tagish Lakemeteorite.” https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive.

Wthout knowing about it, mentioning the Grazac meteor organic discovery, Willy was touching one of the keys of the origin and evolution of life. His hypothesis was that tmeperature resistant bacteria spores brought life to Earth. I will be back on this in my next post.

friend of mine living in Catalonia did not know about this event. This even Willy told about in his book, is  documented in spectator.

“But it is not every day that a fireball is so considerate as to choose a great city for the scene of its dramatic entrance and exit.”.

“Report on the bolide that exploded over Madrid on the 10th of February 1896”

As I am afraid this document may disappear from internet I copied the Text  from the site above as is

“On Monday, February 10th, at 9h 29m 30s, there was observed an instantaneous bluish-white illumination in the atmosphere, so strong and vivid as to be visible in the inner rooms and in the open air.

The day was a magnificent one; blue sky, no wind and a radiant sun. Soon after there was plainly visible near the zenith and some few degrees to the SE, a white spot, like smoke, bearing NE to SW of about 6 degrees in length and 1 degree in width; its form was semicircular with the convexity turned to the east. In the center and near the apex of the curve, it presented a condensation of a reddish color, similar to that of clouds at sunset. The general appearance of the spot was that of a cirro-cumulus.

At 9.30am 40s there was heard a deep and very strong detonation, accompanied by many others not so intense, similar to the noise produced by a large cannonball rolling along the upper story of a house. This noise was very prolonged; it was found to last two minutes.

Meanwhile the vibration of windows and partitions (not the thick walls) was extraordinary and the rattling of panes of glass alarming. In some houses all the window-panes were broken.

Judging from the time which elapsed between the light and the sound of the first detonation, the meteor exploded in the air at a distance not less than 24km (15 miles) and this number is evidently too low.

Considering the aspect of the spot of smoke, it seems probable that the meteor proceeded from the SE towards the NW and near the zenith of Madrid it exploded.

Changed into smoke and dust, totally or partially, this smoke was carried away the upper currents of the atmosphere to the east. We find here a splendid confirmation of the theory which supposes that at the upper limits of the air, the wind moves from west to east.

The cloud continued its course to the ENE, dissolving gradually away and at 3pm it was still perfectly visible like a light cirrus in the east some 20 degrees above the horizon.

The compression of the atmosphere at the instant of the conflagration was indicated by the registering barometers. In the aneroids, the trace is small but the mercurial one shows that the column rose 1.6mm and lowered 0.7mm, the amplitude of the total oscillation being 2.3mm

In the neighborhood of Madrid, some fragments of the meteorite fell and I have obtained one of them. Externally the fragment is of a black metallic aspect; inside it is of white stony appearance, with some brilliant points like nickel; it weighs 6.3mm grams.

From information received later; it appears that the phenomenon was visible in a large part of the Peninsula from Sierra de Estrella (Portugal) on the Mediterranean coast and from Segovia to Aguilas or a distance of 700kms from E to W and 400kms from N to S.

Augusto Arcimis, Director of the Observatory.

Posted July 4, 2008

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# Step 6 – Looking for LUCA

For Willy the source of life was bacteria with celestial origins. He came to this conclusion as bacterial spores are very resistant to high and low temperatures.  So bacteria could come from space and “ignite” an  evolution  of living organisms on Earth.

• I have not found info so far that  bacteria came from space
• but it is known that earth has been showered with complex molecules, like amino acids a and nucleotides landing with e.g. Carbonaceous Chondrite meteors.
• We know that bacteria could survive the first anaerobic, poisonous and hot earth period. (ed. read below about Looki) We also know that bacteria have an important key role in the development of cells. I will share with tyou what I have come to know during my searches.

Content

building blocks from Space

“The idea that primitive life on Earth may have been seeded by a comet or asteroid impact is controversial. Since it was suggested more than 40 years ago, however, increasingly complex organic molecules have been discovered in space. ” (Source: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2003/aug/11/amino-acid-detected-in-space   )

“For the first time, we have three lines of evidence that together give us confidence these DNA building blocks actually were created in space.” (Source: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/solarsystem/features/dna-meteorites.html   )

Bacteria spore Low earth orbit (LEO) tests

Sveral bacteria (bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Deinococcus geothermalis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus and more   have been tested in outer space as can be seen in this (wiki) infogalactic list:

AKINETES – an example
“Akinetes are resting-state cells of cyanobacteria that are produced by certain genera of heterocystous cyanobacteria to survive extreme environmental conditions.”

AKINETES SURVIVAL
“A proportion of the akinete population was able to survive a period of 10 days in LEO (ED. low Earth Orbit) and 28 days in Mars simulated conditions, when the rocks were not subjected to UV radiation. ” (Source:  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11084-009-9167-4  )

What did Darwin think?

“Probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this Earth have descended from some primordial form, into which life was first breathed,”
(Source: in the origin of species page 484, Darwin)

“But that primordial form lived and died 4 billion years ago. Its traits — where it lived, what it ate, how it survived the brutal conditions on early Earth — are obscured by time and a scant fossil record.” (Source : https://www.washingtonpost.com )

Looking for LUCA,  our  Last Universal Common Ancestor

Newly discovered ‘missing link’ shows how humans could evolve from single-celled organisms https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2015/05/06/newly-discovered-missing-link-called-loki-ties-us-to-our-single-celled-ancestors/?tid=a_inl&utm_term=.b8561c22fbe2

How humans could evolve from single-celled organisms

Newly discovered ‘missing link’ shows how humans could evolve from single-celled organisms

Endosymbiosis – The prevailing theory
the prevailing theory is endosymbiosis, that complex life emerged vis a vis a symbiotic relationship between an archaea organism and a bacterial organism. This is how it can have occured.

“many components that underpin eukaryote-specific features (ed. cell nucleus) were already present in that ancestor.” (Source: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v521/n7551/full/nature14447.html )

Step 1. The procaryote ancestor cell (without cell nucleus) developed first a membrane protecting the DNA,   a cell nucleus. However “The origin of the eukaryotic cell remains one of the most contentious puzzles in modern biology. ”

Step 2. An archaea eucaryote cell (ed. a looki ancestor) engulfed a bacteria. And the engulfed bacteria came to work as and be  a mitochondrion taking care of the mother cells sugar methabolism.  When the mother  cell then duplicates, also the mithocondria with its RNA (bacteria DNA) duplicates.  Remind that  the mithocondria RNA is inherited only from female to female.

Below is an image that illustrates the two steps in the endosymbiosis.

Looki (Lokiarchaeota) was found near a hydrothermal vent field along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge a mile and a half below the surface

Source: www.washingtonpost.com  )

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# Step 7 – life origin theories

Content

Willy depicted  in page 18 of his book, the theory that the origin of live on earth came from bacteria spores from space transported with metheors. He read an article about a metheor in France, with a typical organic smell (formaledhyde?) , Today we know that several aminoacids have been found on metheors so today many theories about origin of life are based on the the knowledge that key molecules building up proteins and DNA may have come from space and that these molecules may have helped a so called chemical evolution on earth where dead materia came alive as reproducing RNA.

But about the main creation  theories, the Cairn Smith heterotroph hypothesis, the Oparin Haldane and RNA-world hypothesis“The first thing that may be said about theories on the origin of life is that none satisfy the criteria of a scientific theory. There were no human observers of the origin of life, and it is impossible to reenact the process. If such a process did occur, it could have left no fossil record or history. There is no way to observe or test any postulated evolutionary origin of life. All such theories are mere postulates, all related laboratory experiments are mere exercises in organic chemistry.” (Source: icr.org, an institute that argues that only God could have created cells)

In https://mygrandfather.wordpress.com/2017/10/20/looking-of-luca-step-7/ I told about latest discovery, endosymbiosis, how a procaryote cell, engulfing a bacteria, got a RNA mithocondria.

I have found two new articles about the building of the first cells, the so called primordial cell or the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). One article is published in the Scientific American August 2017 and the other in a German magazine, Geo kompakt 23.

A land based volcanic origin theory –  Forming of protocells in hydrothermal pools

The  theory described in Scienrific America, tells that complex molecules (aminoacids and others) came to earth from space and falling down with rain, accumulated in hot geiser areas where periods of wet and dry alternated. The high concentration of these monomer molecules led to the forming of  polymers. These scientists argue against the creation in the hydrothermal vent field because the building molecule blocks are highly diluted in the Sea and therefore can never form complex structures. There hypothesis is that the first life (forming of protocells) was seen in hydrohermal pools near active vocanoes,  Tests have been made in Kamtchakta Tsmall boiling springs and laboratory. In 3.5 billion year old geyserite in Australia they have found minuscule bubbles products of biological fims. The source are the research of Martin Van Kranendonk,  Tara Djokic (Australian center of Astrobiology, and David Deamer (Department of biomolecular engineering at the  University of California, co author with Szowstak of “The origins of life” and “First life”)

A Ocean based volcanic origin theory  –  Forming of procells in pores in deep Ocean vells.

One other theory, written about in the German GEO kompakt n 23 takes the hydrothermal vent theory a step further. Complex molecules are concentrated and primordial cells are built inside tiny pores with ironsulfide walls, as show in this image.

( Scanned from the German GEO kompakt n 23, page 39 )

Water, ammonia, methane, hydrogen gas, sulfure and phospor molecules, are the basic molecules to buildsugar, aminoacid and nucleic acid molecules.

these monomers form polymers, short protein and RNA chains.

Fatty acids form a membrane in the pore wall and later

four types of primordial cells are created in these pores:

bacteria, procaryote and basic virus forms.

( Scanned from the German GEO kompakt n 23, page 41 )

( Scanned from the German GEO kompakt n 23, page 43 )

All biological cells are membrane-bound compartments. The pore fulfills the essential function of creating an internal environment within which genetic materials can reside and metabolic activities can take place without being lost to the environment.

The article share just one source, that is the Springer book written by Horst Rauchfuß “Chemische Evolution und der Ursprung des Leben.” . I decided not to buy this book as it is hard for me to read German.  I am happy to have found this German magazine with its nice illustrations.  I fell I can rely on it. To support this incredible theory ( or postulate) scientists have been able to create protocells in labs.

http://www.hhmi.org/news/researchers-build-model-protocell-capable-copying-dna

This video from Liz Bloomfield is a good resumé of the creation theories and basic parts needed for an origin of life.

For me this sounds like

“The storch comes with your sister

when your childrens are not mature enough to understand the true story. Creationist seems not to understand why the Bible is filled with metaphores and forget that time in the Bible is relative. A psalm mention this. In the Quran, time relativity is obvious (See 70:4).  Creationists always refer to modern cells when they argue against naturalist scintific  views.

As Jack Szostak reminds us in this video, the archeobacteria must have been rudimental, almost like virus. They must have had very simple membranes with simple fatty acids without selective proteins in it, and the reproducing RNA ribosomes may not have had proteins incorporated.

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# Step 8 – A nephew’s answer 100 years later

Foreword

Willy asked among others ” Did God create the World from nothing?

I will in this step answer to his question.

“We can not proove that a Creating God really exists. As we can not see what is  invisible. So we can only feel about and believe in a God.

The Buddhists say that the existence of God is not a intresting issue. It is more important how you behave. But if you are trying to know about a Creator read Romans 1:20-22:  For his invisible qualities are clearly seen from the world’s creation onward,

Paleoanthropologists and Darwin did

“Travel through the land and observe how He began creation. Then Allah will produce the final creation. Indeed Allah, over all things, is competent.” ( Quran 29:20)

Science without religion is lame.

Many of you humans who have been able to attend school  you have now maybe the basic knowledge in chemistry,  physicsbiology,  Paleoanthropology and mathematics to understand this  2nd millenium Genesis

Read the full enlightened genesis with extended introduction and Biblical and Quranic texts beside. here

The enlightened Genesis

A plan in the beginning

there were huge amounts of energy,  strings and many formulas and a divine plan. God developed with Isa (Jesus in Arabic) the plan to create humans in the image of God.

God told about this plan to the Angels. The angels argued against this plan. But the angels did not know yet the details of the plan, how to develope Humans into Gods  image with the help of the prophets and Isa himself.

God and Isa knew from the beginning  that  ammonia, methane, hydrogen gas, sulfure dioxide, nitrogen gas, phosphate and water were needed to get a  primordial first cell on earth. So Earth had to have a lot of  hydrogen, carbon,  oxygen, phosphor,  sulfur, magnesium and nitrogen atoms.

Hydrogen will be abundant from the beginning in Universe. For the other ingredients, stars are needed. Smaller Stars were to produce the lighter atoms like carbon,  nitrogen,  oxygen. and iron in stellar nucleosynthesis.

Supernovae were to produce the heavier phosphor and magnesium atoms in a supernova nucleosynthesis.

The primordial cell were to develope in a huge amount of  generations into among others, Human bodies the best suited of them, planned to carry the weak soul of Adam that will fall from Heaven.

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God and Jesus knew that Adam had to be inferior to the angels and therefore to be vulnerable to the black angel (Satan) . As Adam, as expected couldn’t resist to go to Eve near the forbidden tree and please her instead of listening to God, Adam was condemned to a life on Earth.

Adam knew about Heaven, the angels and God. As he were to be sent down to earth, he  got also a lot of  time to learn the names of important species, domestic animals and plants as well as dangereous ones,  before being incarnated in the developed mortal homo sapiens body. He were because of his superior knowledge, to become the first Muslim prophet.

the plan of God and Isa was ready to be realized.

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To be

A tiny egg of life containing huge amount of energy and  the 12 building blocks of the Universe,  appeared, programmed for a autonomous development and growth like a like a seed of a oak tree.

The hot building blocks expanded rapidly while cooling and a Big Bang nucleosynthesis  started , creating huge amounts of protium, deuterium and  tritium.
Hydrogen atoms formed atom pairs of hydrogen gas. Huge Nebulae were formed. These  were planned to create gas planets and stars.

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There was light

A tiny light appeared somewhere in the dark Universe from a star when the Universe was only about 200 million years old“.

One of the stars in Earth galaxy died as a supernova and formed a Stellar cloud of  gas and dust containing the lighter and heavier ingredients needed on Earth.

The Sun started to shine about 4.6 billion years ago. The   Earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. The early Earth rotated while being illuminated by the Sun,  and by the tiny light of the many stars in our galaxy as a Milky way  and by the light of billions of other galaxies.

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Creation of Solar system and Earth

In the begining of the Solar system there was a cloud of gas and dust coming from a Supernova. In the middle of this cloud was a spinning protostar that became the Sun. Over time, the dust clumped  together to form small stones, planetesimals (asteroids) and whole planets, among them Earth, clearing out paths through the dust, stones and asteroids.

Another planet collided with the young Earth, ejecting fragments of rocky material that condensed into Earth’s only satellite, the Moon.

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The earth childhood

The early earth was for long time a globe of glowing magma, flowing around on the surface with an atmosphere with oxygen rich compounds like water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.

From the beginning there  was only one continent on Earth. It was called Pangea. Pangea were later divided into the continents you know about today, surrounded by Oceans. The continents  are moving around creating mountains and volcanoes.

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beginning of life on earth.

As God and Jesus planned, there were now water, ammonia, methane, hydrogen gas, sulfure and phospor molecules available  in landbased volcanic pools around the earth.

The basic parts of RNA were made to  join together to form  short RNA chains in tiny fat bubbles. This is abiogenesis and  happened in one of the volcanic pools.

Basic parts of extremophile bacteria RNA code developed.

It is said Humans were created with clay and earth. Verily this is true and humans are now almost understanding how God may have started  this in volcanic mud and developed these with the divine evolution rules Darwin understood traveling  around the world.

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LIfe is developing

The first primordial cells were to reproduce and the best variants, selected with natural selection,where to proliferate developing more advanced cells.

Bacteria became mitocondria once engulfed by oter cells. Cells congregated into organs and organs congregated into plants and bodies

More than 200 000 algae species were developed to transform carbon dioxide into oxygen.

And 390.000 different plants species were  developed to serve as food for 6.836.330 animal species.

And God and Isa planned, the Earth were to be finally populated by billions of micro and macroorganim species. Among others algae, amoeba and bacteria species.

Many species of insects developed to be food for birds and other animals. On Earth there are now

In total, God and Isa planned the Earth to be finally populated by 1 trillion species, most of them microbes.

6.5 million animal species live on land and 2.2 million animal species live in the oceans

God created all these creatures with one seed with 12 ingredients at the very beginning. It grew and developed by itself like a tree from a single seed.

• developed cells  were given the possibility to reproduce themselves getting offspring with variation in behaviour and habilities, to be elected with natural selection.  So the trillion species  developed according to their kind in different parts on earth during millions of years.
• Among all these animals a mammal developed to a Human body, you have found remainings of in Africa and Middle East. You call these Homo sapiens.
• But the homo sapiens you found were not yet homo sapiens sapiens.
• .Homo sapiens sapiens God and Isa planned that the most able and intelligent Homo sapiens woman in Israel, daughter of a Homo sapiens woman from Africa and a Neanderthal man from Europe were to become pregnant with a homo sapiens sapiens baby boy.That homo sapiens sapiens boy were to get Adams soul from the Adam that was created in Heaven and condemned to a life on Earth because of his weakness.The son with the soul of Adam had to be educated by a woman to become a good man.
• .Becoming image of God But Adams son Cain  driven by aggressiveness and impulsivenes inherited by his father Neanderthal , killed his brother Abel. So he was not yet image of a forgiving and loving God.God knew from the very beginning he had  to send down several messengers to achieve the goal with the earthly humans. If they will follow the Messengers and Jesus, they will become images of God and gain a spiritual body after the Resurrection.Jesus had to do miracles and suffer for poor Roman citizens and centurions to become Christians and follow Jesus and sacrifice themselves to  make the humanity understand there is only one God and the right way to happiness, is being like God, following Jesus messages of forgiveness and unconditional love.

My answer has been finally formatted in a “Enlightened Genesis” in www.kinberg.net/wordpress/stellan/enlightened-genesis/

• Tom Chi at TEDxTaipei made a splendid resumé 2016 of the nucleosyntheis,  abiotic, biotic and cultural evolutions under the theme “everything is Connected”
•

## In memory of a grandfather

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