Prenumerating “International Centre for Theoretical Sciences” on youtube I got alert about a video called “Energy-Momentum Tensor on the Lattice by Masakiyo Kitazawa”.
I have dedicated time to tenors on a separate page so this title attracted immediately my attention,
The video says among others “Understanding quantum gauge theories is one of the remarkable challenges of the millennium. In particular, the phenomenon of confinement in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is regarded as one of the most fundamental unsolved problems in physics. A fantastic opportunity to combine our theoretical understanding with experiments has emerged from the recent heavy-ion collision experiments at RHIC and CERN, which have reported a plasma of deconfined coloured degrees of freedom called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). However it is not yet understood how such a near-thermal plasma is formed within a remarkably short time scale under such non-equilibrium conditions. The microscopic processes which lead to thermalisation or rather hydrodynamisation of the QGP and eventually to hadronisation, could hold the key to our understanding of the inner workings of gauge theories. ”
The noun gauge is defined as “fixed standard of measure”
The verb gauge pronounced /ˈɡaːdʒ(ə)/ is defined as “ascertain by exact measurements,” ( https://www.etymonline.com/word/gauge )
“from Frankish *galga (“measuring rod, pole”), from Proto-Germanic *galgô (“pole, stake, cross”)”. Swedish “Galge” that is in Italian “Patibolo). In Swedish “Galge” is something very different. It is usually interpreted as a gallow or as a cloth hanger.
Wikipedia explains in an introduction that “A gauge theory is a type of theory in physics. The word gauge means a measurement, a thickness, an in-between distance (as in railroad tracks), or a resulting number of units per certain parameter (a number of loops in an inch of fabric or a number of lead balls in a pound of ammunition).