The Torah in jesus kerygma

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INTRODUCTION

I wrote about Jesus first years in several posts:

Evangelists took several  times,  inspiration from the Torah (See Matthew and Luke among others to fill gaps about Jesus story and mission. See below:

But sometimes, Jesus used Torah texts in his own teaching. See below.

Understanding Jesus requires some understanding of the Jewish culture and believes.
So I decided to copy-paste these Gospel-Torah parts in this page.

( N:B. The Gospel texts below are copied from www.christianwritingtoday.com/free_downloads/WebNT_CWTedition.pdf )

INDEX

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Torah in Jesus Kerygma

Jesus interpretation of Genesis 1:27 (19:4) and Genesis 2:24 (19:5)

Matthew 19:3 Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason?”
19:4 He answered, “Haven’t you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female,
19:5 and said, ‘For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?’
19:6 So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don’t let man tear apart.

Jesus interpretation of of Isaiah 6:9-10


Matthew shares these words of Jesus:

Matthew 13:10 The disciples came, and said to him, “Why do you speak to them in parables?”
13:11 He answered them, “To you it is given to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven, but it is not given to them.
13:12 For whoever has, to him will be given, and he will have abundance, but whoever doesn’t have, from him will be taken away even that which he has.
13:13 Therefore I speak to them in parables, because seeing they don’t see, and hearing, they don’t hear, neither do they understand.
13:14 In them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says, ‘By hearing you will hear, and will in no way understand; Seeing you will see, and will in no way perceive:
13:15 for this people’s heart has grown callous, their ears are dull of hearing, they have closed their eyes; or else perhaps they might perceive with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their heart, and should turn again; and I would heal them.’

Jesus’ interpretation of the books of

Matthew shares these words:

Matthew 15:1 Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying, 15:2 “Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don’t
15:3 He answered them, “Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition?
15:4 For God commanded, ‘Honor your father and your mother,’ and, ‘He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.’
15:5 But you say, ‘Whoever may tell his father or his mother, “Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God,”
15:6 he shall not honor his father or mother.’ You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition.
15:7 You hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying,
15:8 ‘These people draw near to me with their mouth, and honor me with their lips; but their heart is far from me.
15:9 And in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrine rules made by men.’”

Jesus interpretation of

Matthew shares these words of Jesus:

Matthew 19:16 Behold, one came to him and said, “Good teacher, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?”
19:17 He said to him, “Why do you call me good? No one is good but one, that is, God. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.” (i) 
19:18 He said to him, “Which ones?” Jesus said, “‘You shall not murder.’ ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ ‘You shall not steal.’ ‘You shall not offer false testimony.’
19:19 ‘Honor your father and mother.’ (j) And, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’”

Footnotes

  • (i) 19:17 So MT and TR. NU reads “Why do you ask me about what is good?”
  • (j) 19:19 Exodus 20:12-16; Deuteronomy 5:16-20

Jesus interpretation of

Matthew shares these words of Jesus:
Matthew 18:15 “If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother.
18:16 But if he doesn’t listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.

18:17 If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 18:18 Most certainly I tell you, whatever things you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever things you release on earth will have been released in heaven.
18:19 Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven.
18:20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in their midst.”

Jesus interpretation of

Mark 7:6 shares Jesus answer to The Pharisees question: “Why don’t your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?” :

Mark 7:6 He answered them, “Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written,
This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.

7:7 But in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’ (o)

Jesus’ interpretation of

Matthew  21:12 Jesus entered into the temple of God, and drove out all of those who sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the money changers’ tables and the seats of those who sold the doves.
21:13 He said to them, “It is written, ‘My house shall be called a house of prayer,’ but you have made it a den of robbers!” 

 

Jesus interpretation of Psalm 8:2

Matthew 21:15 But when the chief priests and the scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children who were crying in the temple and saying, “Hosanna to the son of David!” they were indignant, 21:16 and said to him, “Do you hear what these are saying?” Jesus said to them, “Yes. Did you never read, ‘Out of the mouth of babes and nursing babies you have perfected praise?’”

Jesus interpretation of Psalm 118:26

Matthew 23:39 For I tell you, you will not see me from now on, until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!’”

Jesus’ interpretation of 

Matthew 12:3-8 shares how Jesus  answered the Pharisees, when he went on the Sabbath day through the grain fields:

Matthew 12:3 But he said to them, “Haven’t you read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him;
12:4 how he entered into God’s house, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests?
12:5 Or have you not read in the law, that on the Sabbath day, the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are guiltless?
12:6 But I tell you that one greater than the temple is here.
12:7 But if you had known what this means, ‘I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,’  you would not have condemned the guiltless.
12:8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.”

Luke 4:17 is inspired by  Isaiah 61:1-2, writing about Jesus in Nazareth:

Luke 4:17 The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written,
4:18 “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted,k to proclaim release to the captives, recovering of sight to the blind, to deliver those who are crushed,
4:19 and to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord.”
4:20 He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him.
4:21 He began to tell them, “Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.”

Footnotes

  • (k) 4:18 NU omits “to heal the brokenhearted”
  • (l) 4:19 Isaiah 61:1-2

Jesus interpretation of

  • 22:32: Exodus 3:6
  • 22:37: Deuteronomy 6:5
  • 22:39: Leviticus 19:18
  • 22:44: Psalm 110:1

Matthew 22:23 On that day Sadducees (those who say that there is no resurrection) came to him. They asked him,
22:24 saying, “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed for his brother.’
22:25 Now there were with us seven brothers. The first married and died, and having no seed left his wife to his brother.
22:26 In the same way, the second also, and the third, to the seventh.
22:27 After them all, the woman died.
22:28 In the resurrection therefore, whose wife will she be of the seven? For they all had her.”
22:29 But Jesus answered them, “You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God.
22:30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God’s angels in heaven.
22:31 But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven’t you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying,
22:32 ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?’ God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.”

Matthew 22:37 Jesus said to him, “‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’
22:38 This is the first and great commandment.
22:39
A second likewise is this, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ 
22:40 The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments.”
22:41 Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question,
22:42 saying, “What do you think of the Christ? Whose son is he?” They said to him, “Of David.”
22:43 He said to them, “How then does David in the Spirit call him Lord, saying,
22:44 ‘The Lord said to my Lord, sit on my right hand, until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet?’

Jesus on the mount of Olives, interpreting

  • 24:15 – Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11
  • 24:29 – Isaiah 13:10; 34:4

Matthew 24:3 As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things be? What is the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age?”
24:4 Jesus answered them, “Be careful that no one leads you astray.
24:5 For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and will lead many astray.
24:6 You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you aren’t troubled, for all this must happen, but the end is not yet.

24:7 For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there will be famines, plagues, and earthquakes in various places. 24:8 But all these things are the beginning of birth pains.
24:9 Then they will deliver you up to oppression, and will kill you. You will be hated by all of the nations for my name’s sake.
24:10 Then many will stumble, and will deliver up one another, and will hate one another.
24:11 Many false prophets will arise, and will lead many astray. 24:12Because iniquity will be multiplied, the love of many will grow cold. 24:13 But he who endures to the end, the same will be saved.
24:14 This Good News of the Kingdom will be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come.
24:15“When, therefore, you see the abomination of desolation, l which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand),
24:16 then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.
24:17 Let him who is on the housetop not go down to take out things that are in his house.

24:18 Let him who is in the field not return back to get his clothes.
24:19 But woe to those who are with child and to nursing mothers in those days!
24:20 Pray that your flight will not be in the winter, nor on a Sabbath, 24:21for then there will be great oppression, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, nor ever will be.
24:22 Unless those days had been shortened, no flesh would have been saved. But for the sake of the chosen ones, those days will be shortened. 24:23 “Then if any man tells you, ‘Behold, here is the Christ,’ or, ‘There,’ don’t believe it.

24:24 For there will arise false christs, and false prophets, and they will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the chosen ones.
24:25 “Behold, I have told you beforehand.

24:26 If therefore they tell you, ‘Behold, he is in the wilderness,’ don’t go out; ‘Behold, he is in the inner rooms,’ don’t believe it.
24:27 For as the lightning flashes from the east, and is seen even to the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.
24:28 For wherever the carcass is, there is where the vultures (m) gather together.
24:29 But immediately after the oppression of those days, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light, the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken;

Footnotes

  • (m) 24:28 or, eagles

Jesus interpretation of Zechariah 13:7

Matthew 26:31 Then Jesus said to them, “All of you will be made to stumble because of me tonight, for it is written, ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’

Jesus on the cross using Psalm 22:1

 

Matthew 27:46 About the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, “Eli, Eli, limaa sabachthani?” 

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Jesus mentions Torah texts

Jesus tells about Elijah

Luke about Jesus in Nazareth, says:

Luke 4:23 He said to them, “Doubtless you will tell me this parable, ‘Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.’”
4:24 He said, “Most certainly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown.
4:25 But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land.
4:26 Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow.
4:27 There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian.”

Footnotes

  •  a 1:2 Malachi 3:1
  • b 1:3 Isaiah 40:3
  • c 1:4 or, immersing

 

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The message

Understanding Jesus requires some understanding of the Jewish culture and believes. I think it is interesting to listen to Joe Amaral in this video:

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conclusion

Working with  this page, I found a new interesting path:
Reading the original Torah texts and compare these to how Jesus interpreted these. This page helps me find those Torah texts and where in the NT  Jesus interpretations are shared.

I believe that by doing this, I will learn more about the Jewish Jesus.


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A pluralist agnostic seeker

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