Islam

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INTRODUCTION

This page contains all texts I  have collected in different posts about a few topics listed in the index, topics I am especially interested in.

INDEX

 

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Geomap

Source: www.nationsonline.org/oneworld

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God/Allah

Surah  Al Fatihah starts with: 

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.”

Read more in http://www.allah.org/ 

Allah is described with 99 names/attributes in the Quran. See en.wiktionary.org

o Name Meaning
  الله‎ (allāh) God
1 اَلرَّحْمَان‎ (ar-raḥmān)اَلرَّحْمَـٰن‎ (ar-raḥmān) The ِBeneficient, The All-Compassionate, The Most Gracious
2 اَلرَّحِيم‎ (ar-raḥīm) The Most Merciful, The Ever-Merciful, The Merciful, The Most Clement
3 اَلْمَلِك‎ (al-malik) The King, The Lord, The Sovereign, The Dominion, The Master
4 اَلْقُدُّوس‎ (al-quddūs) The Holy, The All-Holy, The All-Pure, The Sacred, The All-Sacred
5 اَلسَّلَام‎ (as-salām) The Giver of Peace, The Peace, The All-Calm, The Ever-Tranquil
6 اَلْمُؤْمِن‎ (al-muʾmin) The Granter of Security, The Giver, The Faith, The Supreme Believer, The Giver of Belief, The All-Assurer
7 اَلْمُهَيْمِن‎ (al-muhaymin) The Controller, The Absolute Authority Over All, The Guardian Over All, The Protector, The Absolute Master, The Eternal Dominating
8 اَلْعَزِيز‎ (al-ʿazīz) The Exalted in Might and Power, The Exalted, The Powerful, The Almighty, The Mighty
9 اَلْجَبَّار‎ (al-jabbār) The Omnipotent, The Supreme Power, The Possessor of Having All Power, The Strong, The Compeller
10 اَلْمُتَكَبِّر‎ (al-mutakabbir) The Possessor of Greatness, The Supreme, The Justly Proud, The Majestic
11 اَلْخَالِق‎ (al-ḵāliq) The Creator, The Creator of the Universe, The Maker, The True Originator, The Absolute Author
12 اَلْبَارِئ‎ (al-bāriʾ) The Initiator, The Evolver, The Eternal Spirit Worshipped By All, Have Absolute Power Over All Matters, Nature and Events
13 اَلْمُصَوِّر‎ (al-muṣawwir) The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer, The Artist
14 اَلْغَفَّار‎ (al-ḡaffār) The Repeatedly Forgiving, The Absolute Forgiver, The Pardoner, The Condoner
15 اَلْقَهَّار‎ (al-qahhār) The Subduer, The Overcomer, The Conqueror, The Absolute Vanquisher
16 اَلْوَهَّاب‎ (al-wahhāb) The Absolute Bestower, The Giver, The Grantor, The Great Donor
17 اَلرَّزَّاق‎ (ar-razzāq) The Provider, The Sustainer, The Bestower of Sustenance, The All-Provider
18 اَلْفَتَّاح‎ (al-fattāḥ) The Opener, The Opener of the Gates of Profits, The Reliever, The Victory Giver
19 اَلْعَلِيم‎ (al-ʿalīm) The Knowing, The All-Knower, The Omniscient, The All-Knowledgeable, The Possessor of Knowing Much of Ever Thing, The All-Knowing
20 اَلْقَابِض‎ (al-qābiḍ) The Restrainer, The Constrictor, The Withholder, The Straightener, The Absolute Seizer
21 اَلْبَاسِط‎ (al-bāsiṭ) The Extender, The Expander, The Generous Provider
22 اَلْخَافِض‎ (al-ḵāfiḍ) The Abaser, The Humiliator, The Downgrader
23 اَلرَّافِع‎ (ar-rāfiʿ) The Exalter, The Upgrader
24 اَلْمُعِزّ‎ (al-muʿizz) The Giver of Honor, The Bestower of Honor, The Empowerer
25 اَلْمُذِلّ‎ (al-muḏill) The Giver of Dishonor, The Giver of Disgrace
26 اَلسَّمِيع‎ (as-samīʿ) The Hearing, The All-Hearing, The Hearer of Invocation
27 اَلْبَصِير‎ (al-baṣīr) The All-Seeing, The All-Seer, The Ever-Clairvoyant, The Clear-Sighted, The Clear-Seeing
28 اَلْحَكَم‎ (al-ḥakam) The Judge, The Arbitrator, The Arbiter, The All-Decree, The Possessor of Authority of Decisions and Judgment
29 اَلْعَدْل‎ (al-ʿadl) The Just, The Authorized and Straightforward Judge of Dealing Justly
30 اَللَّطِيف‎ (al-laṭīf) The Gentle, The Benignant, The Subtly Kind, The All-Subtle
31 اَلْخَبِير‎ (al-ḵabīr) The All-Aware, The Well-Acquainted, The Ever-Adept
32 اَلْحَلِيم‎ (al-ḥalīm) The Forbearing, The Indulgent, The Oft Forbearing, The All-Enduring
33 اَلْعَظِيم‎ (al-ʿaẓīm) The Most Great, The Ever-Magnificent, The Most Supreme, The Exalted, The Absolute Dignified
34 اَلْغَفُور‎ (al-ḡafūr) The Ever-Forgiving, The Oft-Forgiving
35 اَلشَّكُور‎ (aš-šakūr) The Grateful, The Appreciative, The Multiplier of Rewards
36 اَلْعَلِيّ‎ (al-ʿaliyy) The Sublime, The Ever-Exalted, The Supreme, The Most High, The Most Lofty
37 اَلْكَبِير‎ (al-kabīr) The Great, The Ever-Great, The Grand, The Most Great, The Greatly Abundant of Extent, Capacity and Importance
38 اَلْحَفِيظ‎ (al-ḥafīẓ) The Preserver, The Ever-Preserving, The All-Watching, The Protector, The Guardian, The Oft-Conservator
39 اَلْمُقِيت‎ (al-muqīt) The Nourisher, The Feeder
40 اَلْحَسِيب‎ (al-ḥasīb) The Bringer of Judgment, The Ever-Reckoner
41 اَلْجَلِيل‎ (al-jalīl) The Majestic, The Exalted, The Oft-Important, The Splendid, The Sublime
42 اَلْكَرِيم‎ (al-karīm) The Noble, The Bountiful, The Generous, The Precious, The Honored, The Benefactor
43 اَلرَّقِيب‎ (ar-raqīb) The Watchful, The Observer, The Ever-Watchful, The Watcher
44 اَلْمُجِيب‎ (al-mujīb) The Responsive, The Answerer, The Supreme Answerer, The Accepter of Invocation
45 اَلْوَاسِع‎ (al-wāsiʿ) The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless, The All-Encompassing
46 اَلْحَكِيم‎ (al-ḥakīm) The Wise, The Ever-Wise, The Endowed with Sound Judgment
47 اَلْوَدُود‎ (al-wadūd) The Affectionate, The Ever-Affectionate, The Loving One, The Loving, The Lover, The One Who Tenders and Warms Hearts
48 اَلْمَجِيد‎ (al-majīd) The All-Glorious, The Majestic, The Ever-Illustrious
49 اَلْبَاعِث‎ (al-bāʿiṯ) The Resurrector, The Awakener, The Arouser, The Dispatcher
50 اَلشَّهِيد‎ (aš-šahīd) The Witness, The Testifier, The Ever-Witnessing
51 اَلْحَقّ‎ (al-ḥaqq) The Truth, The Reality, The Only One Certainly Sound and Genuine in Truth
52 اَلْوَكِيل‎ (al-wakīl) The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate
53 اَلْقَوِيّ‎ (al-qawiyy) The Strong
54 اَلْمَتِين‎ (al-matīn) The Firm, The Steadfast
55 اَلْوَلِيّ‎ (al-waliyy) The Friend, The Helper
56 اَلْحَمِيد‎ (al-ḥamīd) The All-Praiseworthy
57 اَلْمُحْصِي‎ (al-muḥṣī) The Accounter, The Numberer of All
58 اَلْمُبْدِئ‎ (al-mubdiʾ) The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator
59 اَلْمُعِيد‎ (al-muʿīd) The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All
60 اَلْمُحْيِي‎ (al-muḥyī) The Giver of Life
61 اَلْمُمِيت‎ (al-mumīt) The Bringer of Death
62 اَلْحَيّ‎ (al-ḥayy) The Living
63 اَلْقَيُّوم‎ (al-qayyūm) The Subsisting, The Independent
64 اَلْوَاجِد‎ (al-wājid) The Preceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing
65 اَلْمَاجِد‎ (al-mājid) The Illustrious, The Magnificent, The Noble
66 اَلْوَاحِد‎ (al-wāḥid) The Unique, The Single
67 اَلْأَحَد‎ (al-ʾaḥad) The One, The Indivisible
68 اَلصَّمَد‎ (aṣ-ṣamad) The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient
69 اَلْقَادِر‎ (al-qādir) The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything
70 اَلْمُقْتَدِر‎ (al-muqtadir) The Determiner, The Dominant
71 اَلْمُقَدِّم‎ (al-muqaddim) The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward
72 اَلْمُؤَخِّر‎ (al-muʾaḵḵir) The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away
73 اَلْأَوَّل‎ (al-ʾawwal) The First, The Beginning-less
74 اَلْأَخِر‎ (al-ʾaḵir)اَلْآخِر‎ (al-ʾāḵir) The Last, The Endless
75 اَلظَّاهِر‎ (aẓ-ẓāhir) The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer
76 اَلْبَاطِن‎ (al-bāṭin) The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner
77 اَلْوَالِي‎ (al-wālī) The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord
78 اَلْمُتَعَالِي‎ (al-mutaʿālī) The Supremely Exalted, The Most High
79 اَلْبَرّ‎ (al-barr) The Good, The Beneficent, The Source of All Goodness
80 اَلتَّوَّاب‎ (at-tawwāb) The Ever-Returning, Ever-Relenting, The Acceptor of Repentance
81 اَلْمُنْتَقِم‎ (al-muntaqim) The Avenger
82 اَلْعَفُوّ‎ (al-ʿafuww) The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver
83 اَلرَّؤُوف‎ (ar-raʾūf) The Kind, The Pitying, The Compassionate
84 مَالِك الْمُلْك‎ (mālik al-mulk) The Owner of all Sovereignty
85 ذُو ٱلْجَلَالِ وَٱلْإِكْرَام‎ (ḏū l-jalāli wal-ʾikrām) The Owner, Lord of Majesty and Honour
86 اَلْمُقْسِط‎ (al-muqsiṭ) The Equitable, The Requiter
87 اَلْجَامِع‎ (al-jāmiʿ) The Gatherer, The Unifier
88 اَلْغَنِيّ‎ (al-ḡaniyy) The Rich, The Independent, The Self-Sufficient
89 اَلْمُغْنِي‎ (al-muḡnī) The Enricher, The Emancipator
90 اَلْمَانِع‎ (al-māniʿ) The Preventer, The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender
91 اَلضَّار‎ (aḍ-ḍār) The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor
92 اَلنَّافِع‎ (an-nāfiʿ) The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good
93 اَلنُّور‎ (an-nūr) The Light
94 اَلْهَادِي‎ (al-hādī) The Guide, The Way
95 اَلْبَدِيع‎ (al-badīʿ) The Originator, The Incomparable, The Unattainable, The Beautiful
96 اَلْبَاقِي‎ (al-bāqī) The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting
97 اَلْوَارِث‎ (al-wāriṯ) The Heir, The Inheritor of All
98 اَلرَّشِيد‎ (ar-rašīd) The Guide to the Right Path
99 اَلصَّبُور‎ (aṣ-ṣabūr) The Timeless, The Patient

Dr Musharraf Hussain, speaks about Islamic belief in God with Dr Jon Hoover. They discuss the relationships between the one God and His many attributes and between God’s mercy and God’s wrath.

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Prophets

 “God wants to communicate. He also talked to his people and the best 
way to communicate to people is to talk through selected and chosen sinless perfect human beings people who God specifically made for this purpose to embody his teachings and to be able to convey his beauty his 
greatness and his grandeur through these men really so they are these special people who convey and teaches about God”

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Books

Apart from the Quran (www.quran.com) the four books mentioned by name in the Quran shareef are the

I wondered if Allah really meant “kill” in Qu’ran 2:191 I doubted if that was not Shayatan whispering in the ears of Mohamad.
My Lord! I seek refuge with You from the whisperings (suggestions) of the Shayatin (devils). ” ( Quran 23:97   )

Continuing to read the Quran, I discovered later, that killing is not uncondionate as can be read in quran.com/29/46.

The verse tells that “And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses) except with such of them as do wrong

If a Christian hunts and hurt a Muslim then the Christian is not following Jesus commandments to “love you enemie”. So the Quran tells that it is allowed to kill in a defence situation.

Hadith

Many Muslims regards also the Hadith to be sacred and followed

I had problems reading the Hadith about the  9 year old Aisha playing with dolls being led into the sleeping room of Mohamed.

This is was Aisha herself told about the relation with Muhamad.

“The Prophet engaged me when I was a girl of six (years). We went to Medina and stayed at the home of Bani-al-Harith bin Khazraj. Then I got ill and my hair fell down. Later on my hair grew (again) and my mother, Um Ruman, came to me while I was playing in a swing with some of my girlfriends. She called me, and I went to her, not knowing what she wanted to do to me. She caught me by the hand and made me stand at the door of the house. I was breathless then, and when my breathing became Allright, she took some water and rubbed my face and head with it. Then she took me into the house. There in the house I saw some Ansari women who said, “Best wishes and Allah’s Blessing and a good luck.” Then she entrusted me to them and they prepared me (for the marriage). Unexpectedly Allah’s Apostle came to me in the forenoon and my mother handed me over to him, and at that time I was a girl of nine years of age.”
( Source: Hadith Sahih Bukhari 5:58 that for some reason is not readable  in http://ahadith.co.uk/sahihbukhari.php  ) Read more  bout this story in https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2012/sep/17/muhammad-aisha-truth

I stopped reading the Hadith after the description of his toilet practices with warm stones in the desert (read more in www.myreligionislam.com

I left the Hadith as I could not see the Hadiths to be books containing  messages of God.
I also understood that fanatic islamists support their evil actions on the testimonials of the Hadiths. I have also read about Pakistan Muslims defending there desire in marrying 9 year old girls referring to the Hadiths testimonial of Aisha in Sahih Bukhari.

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Afterlife

Quran texts

About dead  is said in the Quran 6/60 but using the word “Soul” (that appears 16 time(s) in 15 verse(s) in the Quran)

Quran 6/60 says And it is He who takes your souls by night and knows what you have committed by day.  Then He revives you therein that a specified term may be fulfilled. Then to Him will be your return; then He will inform you about what you used to do.”

A you see, the soul is taken care of by God temporarily when you sleep and when you die, forever (?).

The word “Spirit”  in Arabic, is called Ruh, almost like the Hebrew   wə·rū·aḥ“. see wə·rū·aḥ in Genesis 1:2)

“Ruh” appears 17 time(s) in 16 verse(s) in the Quran.

For the Angel Gabriel the name ruh-ul-Qudus is often used. Jesus was supported with ruh-ul-Qudus.

Quran 17/85  says about Ruh And (ed. if) they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the Ruh. Say, “The Ruh is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind has not been given of knowledge except a little.

Note that Quran.com uses the English translation “Soul” of “Ruh” instead of Spirit probably to emphasize that God is one, not two or three.

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Reincarnation

“Most Islamic schools of thought reject any idea of reincarnation of human beings or God…During the early history of Islam, some of the Caliphs persecuted all reincarnation-believing people”

“The idea of reincarnation is accepted by a few unorthodox Muslim sects, particularly of the Ghulat.[200] Alawites hold that they were originally stars or divine lights that were cast out of heaven through disobedience and must undergo repeated reincarnation (or metempsychosis) before returning to heaven.[201] They can be reincarnated as Christians or others through sin and as animals if they become infidels.” (Read more in Wiki

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conclusion

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    • Sources

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Notebook of a pluralist

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