.

Introduction

This page is a development of my post from April 18 2018 with the title “Evolution – save our relative Bonobo.

as can be read in Quran 76:1 that says:

Has there come on man a long period of time
when he was a thing unremembered?”

Quran gives space for an “Evolution of the Human species” hypothesis, something that the Bible by literalists seemingly doesn’t.

According to the Quran, the Paradise with Adam and Eve were created in Heaven were Adam was condemned to leave Paradise to go down to Earth incarnated in a mortal body. This led me further into my unified creation theory and my enlightened genesis , a  Genesis of the 2nd millenium where I describe my agnostic belief and hypothesis of a God and the births of the worlds and human kind.

.

Questions

There are maybe up to a trillion of species on earth.  Many species are very similar to each other.

1. Why do we have all those species on Earth?
2. Can a Christian Creationist explain this?
3. Why did God create in a few days 1 trillion species, most of them microbes, 6.5 million animal species on land and 2.2 million animal species live in the oceans.
4. And how could Noah take care of all these species on the Ark?
5. Why do the human body has vestigial organs like:
1. Appendix.
2. muscles connected to the ears
3. Ileum,
4. caecum and colon of rabbit, showing Appendix vermiformis
5. Coccyx. The coccyx, or tailbone, is the remnant of a lost tail
6. Wisdom teeth
7. The plica semilunaris on our eyes?

Evolutions

• Tom Chi at TEDxTaipei made a splendid resumé 2016 of the nucleosyntheis,  abiotic, biotic and cultural evolutions under the theme “everything is Connected”

It is not correct  to use the name “evolution” in some cases below as evolution is correlated to “evolution by natural selection”

We can not go back in time so all the steps are hypothesis, but some of these have been supported by experiments in laboratories and studies in field.

As I wrote in my post about LeMaître, there have been many evolutions going on on Earth as this Swedish graph shows.

(Source: genesis.nu )

There has been several evolutions since the very first beginning of the Universe. Here are the main evolutions:

.

1. particle evolution,
It is not correct  to use the name “evolution” as evolution is correlated to “evolution by natural selection”

All the following nucleosynthesis described are stages of particle evolution, the creation and assembling of proton and neutron particles into atom nuclei a theory developed by Fred Hoyle, (OBSA: Hoyle rejected the Big Bang Theory) and how atom nuclei formed bigger atom nuclei, helium, Iron atoms in stars, Uranium atoms in SuperNovas.

1. Big Bang nucleosynhesis
(Source: https://www.meta-synthesis.com/ )
2. stellar nucleosynthesis
how gas planets formed in Nebula were some gas planets became big enough to start nuclear fusion in its core, becoming a star
During stellar evolution like in our Sun, we have a
is the cause of stellar nucleosynthesis (by which new nuclei up to the size of iron nuclei. )
3. explosive nucleosynthesis
is the nuclear process. This occur inCore-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) .  The nuclei created ends up meteorites.  The death of massive stars are one of the most drastic explosions in the Universe. Read more in nagataki-lab.riken.jp. CCSNe 3D simulations have been done in 2015. ( scitechdaily.com )
( Source: nagataki-lab.riken.jp )

.
2. planet “evolution”
It is not correct  to use the name “evolution” as evolution is correlated to “evolution by natural selection”

Our earth Tellus and similar planets were formed with the meteorite rests (containing stellar nuclei) of a supernova. According to the “giant impact hypothesis”, our planet was hit by a huge mass forming the moon. (Read more in www.sciencedirect.com ) Read more in steemit.com )

.
3. chemical “evolution” – increasing diversity
As said above, it is wrong to use the name “evolution” as evolution is correlated to “evolution by natural selection”. Chemical evolution is determined by mobility and probability.

On some planets like ours, we see the development of new substances in volcanic areas, like ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen gas, methane, sulfuric acid, water, and other molecules.
.

4. organic “evolution” ( Source 1 )
1. inorganic to organic molecule
With inorganic molecules, organic molecules can be formed.
Adding inorganic molecules with electrons in an atmospheric chamber, Miller Urey had amino acids forming in their 1952 experiment. 20 different amino acids were discovered 2007 in sealed vials preserved from the original experiments. (Read more in Wiki )
2. monomer organic molecules  from space
There is potential that organic material came from space.
Haley’s comet tail contained formaldehyde.
The 1969 meteorite that crashed in Murchison Australia contained 70 different amino acids, 6 of these existing already on earth. (Read more in www.scientificamerican.com )
“Increasingly complex organic monomer molecules (RNA and protein polymer building monomers) have been localized in space.
” Earth has been showered with complex molecules, like
landing with e.g. Carbonaceous Chondrite meteors. (read more in www.mpia.de )  forming of organic polymers in hydrothermal pools
” complex molecules (amino acids, nucleotides and others) came to earth from space and falling down with rain, accumulated in hot geiser areas where periods of wet and dry alternated. The high concentration of these monomer molecules led to the forming of  polymers.” Read more in www.kinberg.net

.

5. biologic evolution( Source 1 )
” the idea that life arose from nonlife more than 3.5 billion years ago on Earth. Abiogenesis proposes that the first life-forms generated were very simple and through a gradual process became increasingly complex” (Read more in

Screenshot from www.nature.com
“Probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this Earth have descended from some primordial heterotrophic form, into which life was first breathed,”
(Source: in the origin of species page 484, Darwin)
“But that primordial form lived and died 4 billion years ago. Its traits — where it lived, what it ate, how it survived the brutal conditions on early Earth — are obscured by time and a scant fossil record.” (Source : https://www.washingtonpost.com )

1. Forming of self-replicating RNA
Nucleotides cluster together and 2react with each other, forming a single-stranded RNA on spongy porous clay substrate (in hydrothermal pools)
Scientists have been able 1982 to create single-stranded RNA (Ribozymes) that catalyze its own replication in laboratory. (know more on Liz Bloomfield youtube min 14.30)
2. Protocells
In 3.5 billion-year-old geyserite in Australia, minuscule bubbles products of biological films have been found. The source is the research of Martin Van Kranendonk,  Tara Djokic (Australian center of Astrobiology, and David Deamer (Department of biomolecular engineering at the  University of California, co-author with Szowstak of “The origins of life” and “First life”)  ( Scientific American August 2017 )
With self-replicating Ribozymes, biological films some kind of protocells may have been formed in hydrothermal pools. Protocells that later developed into bacteria

3.  constitute a domain of single-celled organisms.

4. to Eukaryotic cells with endosymbiosis.
endosymbiosis is the prevailing theory.
“It was  proposed  by  Lynn  Margulis (University of Massachusetts), this model proposes that small, energy-transducing prokaryotes were either: ingested as prey or internal symbionts inside larger prokaryotes, where they survived and thrived. Eventually, host and symbiont became inextricably linked in a symbiotic relationship.
and in 100_years_later/#LUCA.

.

6. Homo sapiens evolution
This is the main object of study in human anthropology. My main source of knowledge in this context is the Smithsonian Institution domain humanorigins.si.edu/

We know that our body is made up of stellar dust like it is shown in this table.

Yuval Harari makes a very good presentation of Homo sapiens in his lecture

7. evolution of language
.

8. Evolution of flexible Collaboration
.

9. Evolution of imagination Steven Mithen wore about this issue in “The Evolution of Imagination – An Archaeological Perspective

Neurogenesis

This is actually something that is going on in our brains during our livetime. We know that our brain is plastic. It developed new neurons, especially after PTSD and brain damages, like stroke.

.

1. cultural evolution
with societies, religions and different cultures

earth is auto regenerative

The earth is auto regenerative. The whole biosphere system has auto-regeneration builtin.  Look at nature after a fire.  It takes very little time to recreate life on burned land.

The diversity of species and the evolution is maybe part of a regenerative planet Earth. The other species are there in case a new evolution has to be activated.  When the meteor fell over the Caraibic, the dinosaurs died out and other species probably mice, took over.

We burn fuels and produce huge amounts of carbon dioxide.  If humanity doesn’t, the Earth’s biosystem handles this as it did in the Cambrian age when e.g. Sweden was a shallow sea.

The fossil fuel – oxygen coexistence in Earth biosphere is nicely described with this image explaining the photanol process using cyanobacteria from photanol.com:

of course in Nature, cell produce biomass with carbon dioxide. The more carbon dioxide the more biomass as were the case in the Cambrian age when all our fossil fuel deposits (gas, oil, carbon deposits) were produced from biomass of among others dinoflagellate algae and trees.

A total atomic world war will destroy the Earth’s biosphere?
It will certainly create problems but more for humans than for other creatures.

As has been seen with the Gilda nuclear bomb test on the Bikini atoll,  it destroyed the life for 167 Bikinians that never could go back to their island.  nature recovered quite well. Marine life flourishes again even if it is still inhabitable for humans.
Read the full story at http://boredomtherapy.com/bikini-atoll/ )

The same for the nuclear plant disaster at Chernobyl 1986. Nature is thriving according to video.nationalgeographic.com while humans can not go back into the exclusion zone.

We know that cockroaches will take over and a new evolution will start with maybe completely new mutated species.

like Curt Grimm says in his site drkurtgrimm.com

Nature is loopy and verby

Our biosphere is auto regenerative and the biodiversity of species and evolution mechanisms are an important part of this. We are making our life hell but Earth does not need humans. Humans need Earth.

As Gary Yourofski wisely  said:

We think that animal life isn’t valuable and we falsely believe Human life is valuable.
(from my  transcript in www.kinberg.net)

Charles Darwins dilemma

I am reading the Italian book “Born to believe” from Vittorio Girotto, Telmo Pievani, Giorgio Vallortigara that talks about the problem Darwin had with his theory about the origin of species.

He said among others in his “Origin of Species”:

“To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.

(Source: http://darwiniana.org/eyes.htm )

This text is also presented in  On the Origin of Species: Chapter VI, The eye” | Science | The Guardian ) (” (Read more in http://darwiniana.org/eyes.htm )

As I mentioned above read my agnostic hypothesis about how God created Adam through the evolution of a human body adapted to life on Earth at  www.kinberg.net/2017/09/08/unified-creation-theory.

I integrated this hypothesis in “the Enlightened Genesis” in http://www.kinberg.net/2018/03/28/the-enlightened-genesis/.

.

The human body
a natural history museum

If God created our body in the beginning why did God create it with imperfections and useless functions some of them even causing illnesses? Of course God didn’t.

. Our body inherited characteristics  we do not need, characteristics our ancestors had and needed where some give us  illnesses like:

• blood coagulation properties needed by Neanderthal but causing stroke in our body.
• energy production needed by Neanderthal but giving us diabetes.

Other now useless body functions we have are:

• Useless orangutang shoulder hairs
• Useless Embryo tail
• Useless Palmaris longus
• Useless auricularis superior, anterior and posterior
• Useless arrector pili  causing  Goosebumps

.

Human anthropology and cooperation

Listen to Yuval Harari in this video

what explains the rise of humans

He brings up the value of language and cooperation I wrote some time ago in my

“Evolution of cooperation.”

About human anthropology, I use mainly

Smithsonian national museum of natural  history snd its site

http://humanorigins.si.edu as my source.

.

Evolution of complex organs (like the eye), plants, and bodies.

As Darwin wrote in his book “The Origin of species in the Sixth Edition – 1872:

“Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case; and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our imagination, should not be considered as subversive of the theory.” (Source: http://darwiniana.org/eyes.htm )

Research are finding more and more answers on the eye evolution hypothesis. This video show different evolutionary level s of development of vision and how our own eyes limit (the blind spot) is evidence of an incomplete evolution. It is maybe not liked by fancreationists (fanatic creationists)

Evolution of Organ Systems – Oxford Scholarship

Our bodies are not perfect. Ou body has characteristics we do not need but our prehistoric evolutionary ancestors needed. Look at this video to know more:

Evolution of species today

Evolution is taking place today and can be observed. Farmers themselves develop with the help of evolutionary scientific knowledge, new types of vegetables, and bacteria. Examples are:

• plants that are more resistant to climate
• bacteria that produce insulin
• getting high productivity cattle

Especially Christians and Muslims tend not to believe there is an evolution.

With all Nature documentaries, they may believe that lions keep their prey healthy by eating up sick prey. But that new species arise in an evolutionary process is difficult for them to believe in.

The evolution of new arts in Evolution is hard to understand as it is difficult to show examples. We have to look at species that reproduce fast enough to see this.

There is one case actually studied in Galapagos that happened in two generations of a finch and documented in https://www.sciencealert.com/darwin-s-finches-evolve-into-new-species-in-real-time-two-generations-galapagos

Virus and bacteria with their short life are able to give us several prooves that evolution is a reality.

Multidrug resistance in bacteria is understood by all but maybe not as a result of evolution.

The evolution of the new species like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  is one of many good examples we understand as a result of mutations.

How advanced organs like eyes and species like humans with our  DNA is often referred to as God’s creation. Not forgetting the advanced DNA of Chimpanzees and Bonobos.

Darwins Evolution theory

evolution requires these conditions:

 1. individuals within a population differ Giraffe offspring have different length 2. some individuals are more successful in surviving and reproducing than others The giraffe with a longer neck reaches the leaves more easily. 3. differences are passed at least in part from parents to offspring The giraffe with the longer neck gets offspring with a longer neck.

Look also at https://youtu.be/BcpB_986wyk?t=1m46s

Who is making the selection?

• Females choose what individuals will be allowed to get offspring
• predators kill individuals that are less fit.

This video is explaining evolution very well with good illustrations

Why should  the Bonobo take over – Chimpanzee and bonobo differences

Some humans are more chimpanzee-like and others more bonobo alike.

• Chimpanzees are more aggressive and violent than Bonobo.
• Bonobo females are the more dominant
• Chimpanzees males are the more dominant
• Bonobo males are more kind to females
• Bonobo female keep together
• Chimpanzees change behavior in puberty, Bonobo not
• Bonobo lives only in Congo

What can bonobo teach us?

A pluralist agnostic seeker

Insert math as
$${}$$