Especcially when you read the Quran, see e.g. the first chapter (Sura) at quran.com/1/1 ), you see a lot of signs over the letters. To read correctly it is therefore important to be able to understand these signs. My ambition is to be able to read the Quran. Can I read the Quran then I am able to ready any Arabic text.
To learn these signs and have the explanations easily available, I decided to prepare a separate page for these on my site.
As it is easy to create pages in Google drive pasting images etc I created a Google drive page with the signs at
Arabic vocal signs
There are three vocal signs:
reads like a A
reads like a I
reads like a U
to indicate short wowels, often over the first vocal
Maha has a good lesson about this
Sukoon over a consonant indicates the absence of a vowel.
Tajweed free school has a good lesson about Sukoon with many good examples.
Shaddah is a very special sign one has to learn about. it is often used. it looks like a small w or the first part of the letter Siin.
A very good course teaching about the Shadda sign is made by
I collected all their examples in my Google doc. That helped me a lot repeating the Arabic alphabet have great problems remembering.