The book – step 4

Content

My grandfather Willy talkes in his book in page 10-14  about our planetary system, sun and planets and the stars that are seen  and how they move. Click here to read the German pages 10-14 )

Nebulae and spectroscopy

In page 14 he begins to explain about the difference between star groups and nebulae and how they are recognized with special cameras, spectroscopic cameras (Spectograph). Google 
History_of_spectroscopy to learn more about this technique, eg in
web.mit.edu/spectroscopy/history/history-classical.html

You may find valuable info in History of Astronomy

 (Source : Wiki)

The Spectroscope or Spectrophotometer or Spectrometer or Spectrograph, vintage engraved illustration. Magasin Pittoresque 1874.Telescope with a prisma near the ocular.

Willys books Nebulae

Willy  mention among others these nebulae:

he tells in page 15 that he is convinced  that these nebulosa are intermediate phases in the building  of the worlds.

The camera Willys mention looked like this

 

Here are some modern images of Willys mentioned nebulae

 

Andromeda nebula now know as a Galaxy. 

 

messier 27,m27,planetary nebula

Dumbell nebula
(Messier 27) 1,200 light-years distance, “it was first described by the French astronomer and comet hunter Charles Messier who found it in 1764” (source: www.constellation-guide.com/dumbbell-nebula-messier-27/ )

The Crab Nebula in TaurusCrab nebula in Taurus.
“observed with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode in the morning of November 10, 1999. It is the remnant of a supernova explosion at a distance of about 6,000 light-years, observed almost 1,000 years ago, in the year 1054. It contains a neutron star near its centre that spins 30 times per second around its axis (see below).” ( Source:www.eso.org/public/images/eso9948f/  )

Omega nebula (Messier 17)  in Sagittarius.
( Source: http://earthsky.org/clusters-nebulae-galaxies/m17-is-the-omega-nebula )

The Omega nebula contains Hydrogen, Helium etc  according to  spectral lines seen in Spectographs. Willy mentions existence of Helium and Hydrogen as existing in nebula. Source: http://pages.uoregon.edu/jimbrau/astr122-2015/Notes/Chapter4_5.html#spec  )

M57 The Ring Nebula.JPG

  • Spiral nebula as in the Canis constellation
    They may have seen the spiral glaxies NGC 2207 or  IC 2163 or messier 101.

    “Canis Major is home to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, as well as to several notable deep sky objects: the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, the open cluster Messier 41, the emission nebula NGC 2359 (also known as Thor’s Helmet), and the colliding spiral galaxies NGC 2207 and IC 2163.” (source:www.constellation-guide.com

canis major stars,canis major star map,sirius location,star chart

Canis major constellation

Ring nebula in Lyra. ( Source: Ring nebula M57 )

LyraLyra constellation

Messier objects in Sagittarius

(Sources:earthsky.org/clusters-nebulae-galaxies/m17-is-the-omega-nebula#science )

Appearing and dying stars.

Willy mentions several new star observations in page 15. I have found data about all his testimonials. Only his own observation in 2901 seems to have been exagerated maybe to fit into his theory of a world destruction. His book as he self told it is partly fiction and he deliberately left sources out to not annoy the reader with annoying facts.

Schmidt in Aten 1876 in the Cygnus 

“The star of 1876 (in the constellation of
Cygnus) had long been known and catalogued as a telescopic
star of the ninth magnitude, with nothing to distinguish it from
any of the common herd. On November 24th it suddenly shone
out as bright as the pole-star. Schmidt, of Athens, who discov-
ered it, had been observing that very region of the sky only four
days before, and no such object was then visible. The intervening
days were cloudy, so that we cannot tell precisely the hour when
it ?rst blazed up, but evidently its increase of brightness must
have been extremely rapid. Immediately after Schmidt’s obser-
vation it began to fade, but it was two weeks before it fell below
the sixth magnitude and became invisible to the naked eye, and
it was more than a year before it resumed its original faintness.
Its whole course was carefully watched with the spectroscope.
At ?rst, and for some months” (Source: babel.hathitrust.org/ )

Ward, Gully Hartwid 1885 in the Andromeda

He discovered a new star in M31 (the “Andromeda Nebula”) on 20 August 1885. This object was designated as supernova “S Andromedae“.  now called SN1885 (Source: www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Ernst%20Hartwig  )

SPACE PHOTOS THIS WEEK: Star Dunes, Comet Probe, MoreRemnants from SN 1885.
Photo of traces after the Supernova 1885
( Source: news.nationalgeographic.com  )

Dr Andersson in Edinburgh 1891 observation in the Auriga constellation in the Perseus 

“Nova T Aurigae 1891” as it is called today was discovered by “the watcher of the sky” Dr Andersson,  widely known far beyond the bounds of his native Scotland. Astronomers, professional and nonprofessional alike, and readers of popular and technical books on the science, knew of him as the discoverer of two famous temporary stars-Nova Aurigae (1892) and Nova Persei (1901)-and of many variable stars as well.” (Source:  http://www.astronomyedinburgh.org   )  It is a supernova in our Milky Way galaxy.

More about Nova T Aurigae in articles.adsabs.harvard.edu .

Auriga constellation: Source: http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Auriga_(constellation

Willy Kinberg 22/2 1901

As he describes the last observation in 1901, it sounds also like a supernova observation. probably it was “Nova Persei 1901”.

“We have imaged the ejecta of GK Persei (Nova Persei 1901 A.D.) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), revealing hundreds of cometary-like structures.”   read more in https://arxiv.org/abs/1204.3078 There are many observations done in 1901 (See http://www.rochesterastronomy.org/sn2009 /

Image result for nova persei 1901

“A “new star” appeared in the constellation Perseus in 1901? and was observed by Professor Winslow Upton at ?Brown’s ?Ladd Observatory. Eleven year-old H.P. Lovecraft also saw the cosmic sight, which inspired him to include the nova in his weird tales of horror.

Source https://blogs.brown.edu/libnews/nova-persei/

This is an image from 22/2 I took from rochesterastronomy: 

(Source: https://blogs.brown.edu/libnews/nova-persei/

Willy tells about other observation in the Sky that sounds like Auroras, polar lights or northern lights. Could have looked like in this photo

Image result

In The Mysterius comet I found this text about

May it have been a comet or its tail entering the atmosphere the same day? To be looked closer at.

The destruction of two colliding worlds

Willy discuss this observation as testimonial of the destruction of two worlds who colliding with each other created the light.

Nova Persei 1901 inspired  also H.P. Lovecraft

in his  short cosmic horror story, “Beyond the Wall of Sleep”, were ancient, multi-dimensional entities menace humankind” click to read the book

Lovecraft (1890-1937) was an amateur astronomer Source:  https://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/parallax/serviss/lovecraft

Arise of spiral nebula

My grandfather Willy continues in  his book in page 22-24  to talk about his theories about the creation of Spiral “nebula” like Messier 51 in the photo below. Messier 51 looked like this photo taken february 1910.Source: articles.adsabs.harvard.edu

His theory Click here to read the German pages 21-29 ) .was that two giant bodys, maybe planets collided while rotating in opposite directions. See image from his book below. I think it is an interesting and well thought explanation.  At the time of Willy they called these observations as  nebula observations. A big debate started short after 1906 about the origing of these. Today scrietists agre that the spiral nebula actually is a spiral galaxies. Read more about the debate.

For you who are interested in nebula I recommend this youtube video

Willys sources

It is obvious that Willy being an engineer is highly interested in astronomican news and well informed about these. He made his researches at the end of the 1900th century with observations made from 1850 when there was no internet. I wonder how he kept himself informed. Maybe he had a good network of friends devoted students of astronomy active in the Universities in Europe.

Willy talked about primordial atoms. I will tell about how the ingredients of Earth and life were formed in my next step, step 5

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